Tag Archives: Bovine

Insecticide treatment of cattle to kill sand flies and combat leishmaniasis

With an estimated 500,000 human infections and 50,000 deaths annually, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the second most prevalent parasitic killer, behind malaria. Leishmania parasites are transmitted through the bite of phlebotomine sand flies. A study published in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases makes the case that fighting the insects by treating cattle with the long-lasting insecticide, […]

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* Happy cows make more nutritious milk

Daily infusions with a chemical commonly associated with feelings of happiness were shown to increase calcium levels in the blood of Holstein cows and the milk of Jersey cows that had just given birth. The results, published in the Journal of Endocrinology, could lead to a better understanding of how to improve the health of […]

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* Two thirds of cattle attacks on people involve dogs, new study finds

Dog owners are being urged to remember to be vigilant with their pets when walking near cows in the countryside, following a new review into cattle attacks by the University of Liverpool. Anecdotal media and hospital reports of cattle causing injury or death to members of the public have existed for many years, but until […]

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Detection of influenza D virus among swine and cattle, Italy

Recent studies have identified a new genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family. The virus, distantly related to human influenza C virus, has been provisionally designated as influenza D virus. This novel virus was identified for the first time in pigs with influenza-like illness, but subsequent serologic and virologic surveys have suggested cattle as a possible reservoir. […]

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Extinct 3-horned palaeomerycid ruminant found in Spain

The extinct three-horned palaeomerycid ruminant, Xenokeryx amidalae, found in Spain, may be from the same clade as giraffes, according to a study published December 2, 2015 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Israel M. Sánchez from the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales-CSIC, Madrid, Spain, and colleagues. Palaeomerycids, now extinct, were strange three-horned Eurasian Miocene […]

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* Intensive farming link to bovine TB

Intensive farming practices such as larger herd size, maize growth, fewer hedgerows and the use of silage have been linked to higher risk of bovine TB, new research has concluded. A study by the University of Exeter, funded by BBSRC and published in the Royal Society journal Biological Letters, analysed data from 503 farms which […]

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* Ancient wild ox genome reveals complex cow ancestry

The ancestry of domesticated cattle proves more complex than previously thought, reports a paper published in the open access journal Genome Biology. The first nuclear genome sequence from an ancient wild ox reveals that some modern domestic cow breeds, including the Scottish Highland and Irish Kerry, had wild ancestors that were British, as well as […]

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Cancer-fighting viruses win approval

US regulators clear a viral melanoma therapy, paving the way for a promising field with a chequered past. An engineered herpesvirus that provokes an immune response against cancer has become the first treatment of its kind to be approved for use in the United States, paving the way for a long-awaited class of therapies. On […]

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* Virus in cattle linked to human breast cancer

A new study by University of California, Berkeley, researchers establishes for the first time a link between infection with the bovine leukemia virus and human breast cancer. In the study, published this month in the journal PLOS ONE and available online, researchers analyzed breast tissue from 239 women, comparing samples from women who had breast […]

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Cattle disease spread by vets, not cows

A cattle disease that affected more than 5,000 cows, over 500 of which were killed, was probably spread by vets farmers and cattle traders in Germany, according to one of the first research articles published in the new open access journal Heliyon. The authors of the study, from Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI), Germany, say farmers and people […]

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Whale microbiome shares characteristics with both ruminants, predators

To some, it may not come as a surprise to learn that the great whales are carnivores, feeding on tiny shrimp-like animals such as krill. Moreover, it might not be surprising to find that the microbes that live in whale guts -the so-called microbiome- resemble those of other meat eaters. But scientists now have evidence […]

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* Novel fatigue syndrome in feedlot cattle discovered

Researchers at Kansas State University’s College of Veterinary Medicine, in collaboration with colleagues at Iowa State University and Texas Tech University, have discovered a novel fatigue syndrome affecting feedlot cattle. The syndrome is similar to one affecting the swine industry. The researchers’ landmark paper, “Description of a novel fatigue syndrome of finished feedlot cattle following […]

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* Feed supplement greatly reduces dairy cow methane emissions

A supplement added to the feed of high-producing dairy cows reduced methane emissions by 30 percent and could have ramifications for global climate change, according to an international team of researchers. In addition, over the course of the 12-week study conducted at Penn State’s dairy barns, cows that consumed a feed regimen supplemented by the […]

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* Environmental exposure to hormones used in animal agriculture greater than expected

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Research by an Indiana University environmental scientist and colleagues at universities in Iowa and Washington finds that potentially harmful growth-promoting hormones used in beef production are expected to persist in the environment at higher concentrations and for longer durations than previously thought. “What we release into the environment is just the starting point for a […]

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* Humans, livestock in Kenya linked in sickness and in health

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If a farmer’s goats, cattle or sheep are sick in Kenya, how’s the health of the farmer? Though researchers have long suspected a link between the health of farmers and their families in sub-Saharan Africa and the health of their livestock, a team of veterinary and economic scientists has quantified the relationship for the first […]

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Stomach ulcers in cattle: Bacteria play only a minor role

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Scientists at the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna investigated whether stomach ulcers in cattle are related to the presence of certain bacteria. For their study, they analysed bacteria present in healthy and ulcerated cattle stomachs and found very few differences in microbial diversity. Bacteria therefore appear to play a minor role in the development of […]

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* Gene in high-altitude cattle disease sheds light on human lung disease

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Vanderbilt University researchers have found a genetic mutation that causes pulmonary hypertension in cattle grazed at high altitude, and which leads to a life-threatening condition called brisket disease. Their findings, reported in Nature Communications, may shed light on human lung disease, in particular, the mechanism behind non-familial pulmonary hypertension in patients with conditions such as […]

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* Minimizing ‘false positives’ key to vaccinating against bovine TB

Using mathematical modelling, researchers at the University of Cambridge and Animal & Plant Health Agency, Surrey, show that it is the specificity of the test — the proportion of uninfected animals that test negative — rather than the efficacy of a vaccine, that is the dominant factor in determining whether vaccination can provide a protective […]

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New salmonella serotype discovered

The latest honor to come Lubbock’s way may not sound good at first, but when realizing it’s a breakthrough in biological sciences, it will become something to brag about. Marie Bugarel, a research assistant professor at Texas Tech University’s Department of Animal and Food Sciences in the College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, has […]

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* Testing for Bovine Tuberculosis is more effective than badger culls at controlling the disease

Modelling produced by researchers at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) has found that the only effective potential Bovine Tuberculosis (TB) control strategies are badger culling, cattle testing, controlling cattle movement, and ceasing the practice of housing farm cattle together during winter. The modelling found that in a region containing about 1.5m cows of which […]

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* Manure fertilizer increases antibiotic resistance

Pseudomonas bacteria in soil benefit from manure fertilizer treatments. Treating dairy cows and other farm animals with antibiotics and then laying their manure in soil can cause the bacteria in the dirt to grow resistant to the drugs. But a study now suggests that the manure itself could be contributing to resistance, even when it […]

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Natural intrauterine infection with Schmallenberg virus in malformed newborn calves

We surveyed morphologic alterations in calves in Belgium that were naturally infected in utero by Schmallenberg virus (SBV) and born with deformities during January–March 2012. SBV-specific RNA was distributed unevenly in different tissues. Natural intrauterine SBV infection of calves might cause serious damage to the central nervous system and muscles. During summer and fall 2011, […]

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Evolutionary biology: Why cattle, pigs only have two toes

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The fossil record shows that the first primitive even-toed ungulates had legs with five toes (=digits), just like modern mice and humans. During their evolution, the basic limb skeletal structure was significantly modified such that today’s hippopotami have four toes, while the second and fifth toe face backwards in pigs. During evolutionary diversification of vertebrate […]

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* Livestock gut microbes contributing to greenhouse gas emission

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“Increased to levels unprecedented” is how the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) described the rise of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide emissions in their report on the physical science basis of climate change in 2013. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the atmospheric concentration of methane, a greenhouse gas some 28 […]

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* Schmallenberg virus circulation in high mountain ecosystem, Spain

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During December 29, 2012–February 21, 2013, morphologic anomalies were identified in 4 stillborn calves from different farms in northeastern Spain, and infection with SBV was suspected. The cases were clustered in the Ripollès and Garrotxa regions of Catalonia and appeared in beef cattle herds that spent the grazing season (May–November) in the alpine meadows (>2,000 […]

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Cougars’ diverse diet helped them survive the mass extinction that wiped out the saber-tooth cat, American lion

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Cougars may have survived the mass extinction that took place about 12,000 years ago because they were not particular about what they ate, unlike their more finicky cousins — the saber-tooth cat and American lion. Both perished along with the woolly mammoth and many of the other supersized mammals that walked Earth during the late […]

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* Cow manure harbors diverse new antibiotic resistance genes

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Manure from dairy cows, which is commonly used as a farm soil fertilizer, contains a surprising number of newly identified antibiotic resistance genes from the cows’ gut bacteria. The findings, reported in mBio® the online open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology, hints that cow manure is a potential source of new types of […]

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Moms favor daughters in dairy study

A study of 2.39 million lactation records from 1.49 million dairy cows showed that cows produce significantly more milk for daughters than for sons across lactation, said Barry Bradford, associate professor in K-State’s Department of Animal Sciences and Industry. He, along with Katie Hinde in Harvard’s Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Abigail Carpenter, K-State graduate […]

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Sequence of water buffalo completed

Bangladesh with strong hybrid research program, and BGI, the world’s largest genomics organization, jointly announced today that they have completed the genome sequencing of water buffalo and the bioinformatics analysis. The outstanding work lays an important foundation for molecular breeding of water buffalo, and sheds new light on the understanding of its origin and domestication […]

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The shape of infectious prions

Prions are unique infective agents — unlike viruses, bacteria, fungi and other parasites, prions do not contain either DNA or RNA. Despite their seemingly simple structure, they can propagate their pathological effects like wildfire, by “infecting” normal proteins. PrPSc (the pathological form of the prion protein) can induce normal prion proteins (PrPC) to acquire the […]

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