Tag Archives: Cell Biology

New technique offers model for studying disease, progress toward cell therapy

A highly efficient method has been developed for making kidney structures from stem cells that are derived from skin taken from patients. The kidney structures formed could be used to study abnormalities of kidney development, chronic kidney disease, the effects of toxic drugs, and be incorporated into bioengineered devices to treat patients with acute and […]

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Investigators create complex kidney structures from human stem cells derived from adults

New technique offers model for studying disease, progress toward cell therapy. Researchers modeled kidney development and injury in kidney organoids (shown here), demonstrating that the organoid culture system can be used to study mechanisms of human kidney development and toxicity. Investigators at Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH) and the Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI) have […]

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Sticky gel helps stem cells heal rat hearts

A sticky, protein-rich gel created by Johns Hopkins researchers appears to help stem cells stay on or in rat hearts and restore their metabolism after transplantation, improving cardiac function after simulated heart attacks, according to results of a new study. The findings, described in the December 2015 issue of Biomaterials, offer a potential first step […]

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Scientists reveal how stem cells defend against viruses

Scientists from the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IMCB), a research institute under the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore, have uncovered the mechanisms which embryonic stem cells employ to inhibit virus expression. The ground-breaking discovery could potentially advance stem cell therapeutics and diagnostics. Several stem cell types including embryonic and haematopoietic […]

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The mending tissue: Cellular instructions for tissue repair

The epithelial tissue, or the epithelium, is one of four major types of tissue that lines the surfaces of all organs and hollow spaces in our body. The epithelium protects the organs from damage and maintains the body in a state of balance by allowing a selective in-and-out passage of substances. Proper function of the […]

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Discovery of new code makes reprogramming of cancer cells possible

Cancer researchers dream of the day they can force tumor cells to morph back to the normal cells they once were. Now, researchers on Mayo Clinic’s Florida campus have discovered a way to potentially reprogram cancer cells back to normalcy. The finding, published in Nature Cell Biology, represents “an unexpected new biology that provides the […]

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Chemical-only cell reprogramming transforms human and mouse skin cells into neurons

Two labs in China have independently succeeded in transforming skin cells into neurons using only a cocktail of chemicals, with one group using human cells from healthy individuals and Alzheimer’s patients, and the other group using cells from mice. The two studies reinforce the idea that a purely chemical approach is a promising way to […]

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* Switching mouse neural stem cells to a primate-like behavior

When the right gene is expressed in the right manner in the right population of stem cells, the developing mouse brain can exhibit primate-like features. In a paper publishing August 7th in the Open Access journal PLOS Biology, researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics (MPI-CBG) succeeded in mimicking the […]

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* Cell structure discovery advances understanding of cancer development

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University of Warwick researchers have discovered a cell structure which could help scientists understand why some cancers develop. For the first time a structure called ‘the mesh’ has been identified which helps to hold together cells. This discovery, which has been published in the online journal eLife, changes our understanding of the cell’s internal scaffolding. […]

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Stem cell exosomes used to induce damaged mouse hearts to self-repair

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A little more than a decade ago, researchers discovered that all cells secrete tiny communications modules jammed with an entire work crew of messages for other cells. Today, a team of researchers is harnessing the communications vesicles excreted by stem cells and using them to induce the damaged heart to repair itself. A little more […]

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Nanoparticles target and kill cancer stem cells that drive tumor growth

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Many cancer patients survive treatment only to have a recurrence within a few years. Recurrences and tumor spreading are likely due to cancer stem cells that can be tough to kill with conventional cancer drugs. But now researchers have designed nanoparticles that specifically target these hardy cells to deliver a drug. The nanoparticle treatment worked […]

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Scientists reverse aging in human cell lines and give theory of aging a new lease of life

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Can the process of aging be delayed or even reversed? Research has shown that, in human cell lines at least, it can. They also found that the regulation of two genes involved with the production of glycine, the smallest and simplest amino acid, is partly responsible for some of the characteristics of aging. Can the […]

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Scientists stumble across unknown stem-cell type

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A newly discovered type of stem cell could help provide a model for early human development — and, eventually, allow human organs to be grown in large animals such as pigs or cows for research or therapeutic purposes. Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte, a developmental biologist at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, […]

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More power to the mitochondria: Cells’ energy plant also plays key role in stem cell development

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Researchers at NYU Langone Medical Center have discovered that mitochondria, the major energy source for most cells, also play an important role in stem cell development — a purpose notably distinct from the tiny organelle’s traditional job as the cell’s main source of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy needed for routine cell metabolism. Specifically, the […]

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* Heart cells regenerated in mice

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When a heart attack strikes, heart muscle cells die and scar tissue forms, paving the way for heart failure. Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of death worldwide, in part because the cells in our most vital organ do not get renewed. As opposed to blood, hair or skin cells that can renew themselves throughout […]

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Stem cell injection may soon reverse vision loss caused by age-related macular degeneration

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An injection of stem cells into the eye may soon slow or reverse the effects of early-stage age-related macular degeneration, according to new research from scientists at Cedars-Sinai. Currently, there is no treatment that slows the progression of the disease, which is the leading cause of vision loss in people over 65. “This is the […]

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MRI based on a sugar molecule can tell cancerous from noncancerous cells

Imaging tests like mammograms or CT scans can detect tumors, but figuring out whether a growth is or isn’t cancer usually requires a biopsy to study cells directly. Now results of a Johns Hopkins study suggest that MRI could one day make biopsies more effective or even replace them altogether by noninvasively detecting telltale sugar […]

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Why do cells rush to heal a wound? Mysteries of wound healing unlocked

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Researchers at the University of Arizona have discovered what causes and regulates collective cell migration, one of the most universal but least understood biological processes in all living organisms. The findings, published in the March 13, 2015, edition of Nature Communications, shed light on the mechanisms of cell migration, particularly in the wound-healing process. The […]

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DNA is packaged like a yoyo, scientists find

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To pack two meters of DNA into a microscopic cell, the string of genetic information must be wound extremely carefully into chromosomes. Surprisingly, the DNA’s sequence causes it to be coiled and uncoiled much like a yoyo, scientists reported in Cell. “We discovered this interesting physics of DNA that its sequence determines the flexibility and […]

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A single-cell breakthrough: newly developed technology dissects properties of single stem cells

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The human gut is a remarkable thing. Every week the intestines regenerate a new lining, sloughing off the equivalent surface area of a studio apartment and refurbishing it with new cells. For decades, researchers have known that the party responsible for this extreme makeover were intestinal stem cells, but it wasn’t until this year that […]

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Development of personalized cellular therapy for brain cancer

“A series of Penn trials that began in 2010 have found that engineered T cells have an effect in treating some blood cancers, but expanding this approach into solid tumors has posed challenges,” said the study’s senior author, Marcela Maus, MD, PhD, an assistant professor of Hematology/Oncology in Penn’s Abramson Cancer Center. “A challenging aspect […]

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Link found in how cells start process necessary for life

Researchers have found an RNA structure-based signal that spans billions of years of evolutionary divergence between different types of cells, according to a study led by researchers at the University of Colorado School of Medicine at the Anschutz Medical Campus and published in the journal Nature. Jeffrey Kieft, PhD, professor of biochemistry and molecular genetics […]

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New study shows safer methods for stem cell culturing

A new study led by researchers at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) and the University of California (UC), San Diego School of Medicine shows that certain stem cell culture methods are associated with increased DNA mutations. The study points researchers toward safer and more robust methods of growing stem cells to treat disease and injury. […]

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Artificial blood vessels: Tri-layered artificial blood vessels for first time

Vascular grafts are surgically attached to an obstructed or otherwise unhealthy blood vessel to permanently redirect blood flow, such as in coronary bypass surgery. Traditional grafts work by repurposing existing vessels from the patient’s own body or from a suitable donor. However, these sources are often insufficient for a patient’s needs because of the limited […]

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Researchers reprogram tumor’s cells to attack itself

Inserting a specific strain of bacteria into the microenvironment of aggressive ovarian cancer transforms the behavior of tumor cells from suppression to immunostimulation, researchers at Norris Cotton Cancer Center and the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth have found. The findings, published in OncoImmunology, demonstrate a new approach in immunotherapy that can be applied in […]

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Live broadcast from inside the nerve cell

Neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s or Parkinson’s are caused by defect and aggregated proteins accumulating in brain nerve cells that are thereby paralyzed or even killed. In healthy cells this process is prevented by an enzyme complex known as the proteasome, which removes and recycles obsolete and defective proteins. Recently, researchers in the team of […]

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Telomere extension turns back aging clock in cultured human cells, study finds

A new procedure can quickly and efficiently increase the length of human telomeres, the protective caps on the ends of chromosomes that are linked to aging and disease, according to scientists at the Stanford University School of Medicine. Treated cells behave as if they are much younger than untreated cells, multiplying with abandon in the […]

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How cells communicate

During embryonal development of vertebrates, signaling molecules inform each cell at which position it is located. In this way, the cell can develop its special structure and function. For the first time now, researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have shown that these signaling molecules are transmitted in bundles via long filamentary cell projections. […]

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Functional tissue-engineered intestine grown from human cells

A new study by researchers at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles has shown that tissue-engineered small intestine grown from human cells replicates key aspects of a functioning human intestine. The tissue-engineered small intestine they developed contains important elements of the mucosal lining and support structures, including the ability to absorb sugars, and even tiny or ultra-structural […]

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Microsoft billionaire takes on cell biology

Billionaire businessman and philanthropist Paul Allen plans to pump US$100 million into investigating the most basic unit of life — the cell. The Allen Institute for Cell Science, which was launched on 8 December, will be modelled on the Microsoft co-founder’s Allen Institute for Brain Science in Seattle, Washington, which since 2003 has spent hundreds […]

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