Tag Archives: Human

Slips of the lip stay all in the family: dogs included, but not the cat

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It’s happened to many of us: While looking right at someone you know very well, you open your mouth and blurt out the wrong name. The name you blurt is not just any old name, though, says new research from Duke University that finds “misnaming” follows predictable patterns. Among people who know each other well, […]

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Islet transplantation restores blood sugar awareness and control in type 1 diabetes

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New clinical trial results show that transplantation of pancreatic islets–cell clusters that contain insulin-producing cells–prevents severe, potentially life-threatening drops in blood sugar in people with type 1 diabetes. Researchers found that the treatment was effective for people who experienced episodes of severe hypoglycemia–low blood sugar levels that can lead to seizures, loss of consciousness and […]

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Gene-editing research in human embryos gains momentum

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Experiments are now approved in Sweden, China and the United Kingdom. At the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Fredrik Lanner is preparing to edit genes in human embryos. It’s the kind of research that sparked an international frenzy in April last year, when a Chinese team revealed that it had done the world’s first such experiments. […]

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What are the factors affecting whether women choose a medical research career

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Unless exposed to positive research experience and role models during their medical education and training, women are unlikely to consider careers in academic medicine seriously. That’s one conclusion of an Oxford University study published in The Lancet. It asked why, when entry to medical schools is evenly split between men and women, those working in […]

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Critical to screen patients with rheumatoid arthritis for hearing impairment

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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common autoimmune arthritis, affecting 1% of the general population. Despite its main articular manifestations, RA can involve extra-articular organs including the auditory system. HI in RA is multifactorial. Mechanism of injury and predisposing factors are not clearly understood. Sensorineural hearing loss is the most common type in RA patients […]

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* Infection alert system in catheters could tackle hospital superbugs

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A new infection alert system in catheters could prevent serious infections in millions of hospital patients worldwide. The system, detailed in a new paper in Biosensors and Bioelectronics, changes the color of the urine so patients and carers can see easily if bacteria are starting to block the catheter. The researchers who invented the new […]

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Breakthrough made in cleft lip and palate research

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Leading scientists have identified an important gene that is associated with cleft lip and palate. Experts say the discovery is a step closer to understanding how this birth defect arises, and will help in the development of medical approaches to prevent the disfiguring condition. An international team, led by Newcastle University, UK, and the University […]

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* First ever vaccine for deadly parasitic infection may help prevent another global outbreak

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As scientists scramble to get a Zika virus vaccine into human trials by the end of the summer, a team of researchers is working on the first-ever vaccine to prevent another insect-borne disease — Leishmaniasis — from gaining a similar foothold in the Americas. Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection passed on through the bite of […]

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* Analysis of dog genome will provide insight into human disease

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An important model in studying human disease, the non-coding RNA of the canine genome is an essential starting point for evolutionary and biomedical studies, according to a new study led by The Genome Analysis Centre (TGAC). New research published today in PLOS ONE reveals an improved annotation of microRNAs in the dog genome to further […]

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Researchers push for personalized tumour vaccines

It is precision medicine taken to the extreme: cancer-fighting vaccines that are custom designed for each patient according to the mutations in their individual tumours. With early clinical trials showing promise, that extreme could one day become commonplace — but only if drug developers can scale up and speed up the production of their tailored […]

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Treating myasthenia gravis with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplants

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A report on seven cases of severe myasthenia gravis (an autoimmune disease characterized by severe muscle weakness) suggests that autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (when a patient’s own stem cells are used) may result in long-term remission that is symptom and treatment free, according to an article published online by JAMA Neurology. The study by […]

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* New esophagus tissue reconstructed

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US doctors report reconstructing new esophagus tissue in a critically ill patient. Writing in The Lancet, US doctors report the first case of a human patient whose severely damaged esophagus was reconstructed using commercially available FDA approved stents and skin tissue. Seven years after the reconstruction and 4 years after the stents were removed, the […]

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New assay offers improved detection of deadly prion diseases

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Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, are a family of rare progressive, neurodegenerative illnesses that affect both humans and animals. TSE surveillance is important for public health and food safety because TSEs have the potential of crossing from animals to humans, as seen with the spread of mad cow disease, or bovine spongiform encephalopathy […]

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Test run finds no cancer risk from stem cell therapy

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Therapeutic stem cells can be made without introducing genetic changes that could later lead to cancer, a study in PLOS Genetics has found. The discovery, made by researchers at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, is a boost for scientists working on ways to make regenerative medicines from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells; a type of […]

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Why do cells rush to heal a wound? Mysteries of wound healing unlocked

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Researchers at the University of Arizona have discovered what causes and regulates collective cell migration, one of the most universal but least understood biological processes in all living organisms. The findings, published in the March 13, 2015, edition of Nature Communications, shed light on the mechanisms of cell migration, particularly in the wound-healing process. The […]

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Dressed to kill: Tailoring a suit for tumor-penetrating cancer medications

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For more than a decade, biomedical researchers have been looking for better ways to deliver cancer-killing medication directly to tumors in the body. Tiny capsules, called nanoparticles, are now being used to transport chemotherapy medicine through the bloodstream, to the doorstep of cancerous tumors. But figuring out the best way for the particles to get […]

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Radiation improves survival in older patients with soft tissue sarcomas

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UC Davis researchers have shown that radiation therapy following surgery benefits older patients more than their younger counterparts, a surprising finding that could change the way some patients are treated for soft tissue sarcomas (STS). The study, published in the journal Anticancer Research, used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program to […]

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Scientists discover how the brain repurposes itself to learn scientific concepts

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The human brain was initially used for basic survival tasks, such as staying safe and hunting and gathering. Yet, 200,000 years later, the same human brain is able to learn abstract concepts, like momentum, energy and gravity, which have only been formally defined in the last few centuries. New research from Carnegie Mellon University has […]

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Precision medicine’s potential to define the genetics of autoimmune disease

Precision medicine is an emerging field that aims to deliver highly personalized health care by understanding how individual differences in genetics, environment, and lifestyle impact health and disease. SLE, commonly called lupus, is a serious, potentially fatal autoimmune disease that the National Institutes of Health reports affects nine times more women than men, and is […]

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New compounds discovered as candidates for new antimicrobial drugs against Listeria infection

Scientists at Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR) have discovered chemical compounds which are able to attenuate the virulence of the bacterial human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Their findings are published today in the high impact journal Cell Chemical Biology. The dramatic increase of antibiotic resistance makes new antimicrobial strategies necessary. The researchers at Umeå University […]

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Memories retrieved in mutant ‘Alzheimer’s’ mice

People with Alzheimer’s disease may forget faces or where they left familiar objects because their brains cannot find where they put those memories, a study in mice suggests. The study, reported in Nature, contradicts the notion that Alzheimer’s prevents the brain from making new memories. It also suggests that brain stimulation might temporarily improve the […]

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Stem cells used to identify cellular processes related to glaucoma

Using stem cells derived from human skin cells, researchers led by Jason Meyer, assistant professor of biology, along with graduate student Sarah Ohlemacher of the School of Science at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, have successfully demonstrated the ability to turn stem cells into retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the neurons that conduct visual information from the […]

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Individualized cancer treatment targeting the tumor, not the whole body, a step closer

They look like small, translucent gems but these tiny ‘gel’ slivers hold the world of a patient’s tumour in microcosm ready for trials of anti-cancer drugs to find the best match between treatment and tumour. The ‘gel’ is a new 3D printable material developed by QUT researchers that opens the way to rapid, personalised cancer […]

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* Anatomy of pain

Grimacing, we flinch when we see someone accidentally hit their thumb with a hammer. But is it really pain we feel? Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in Leipzig and other institutions have now proposed a new theory that describes pain as a multi-layered gradual event which consists of […]

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Researchers identify new cause of inherited neuropathy

Neurology researchers link mutations in myelin protein to Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease. Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) is a family of inherited disorders of the peripheral nervous system, affecting approximately one in 2,500 Americans. Its most common iteration, CMT1, comes in many forms, most of which have to date been linked to a small set of causative genes. New […]

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New proteins discovered that link obesity-driven diabetes to cancer

For the first time, researchers have determined how bromodomain (BRD) proteins work in type 2 diabetes, which may lead to a better understanding of the link between adult-onset diabetes and certain cancers. The findings, which appear in PLOS ONE, show that reducing levels in pancreatic beta cells of individual BRDs, called BET proteins, previously shown […]

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New clue to fighting acute myeloid leukemia found

A study led by researchers from the Cancer Science Institute of Singapore (CSI Singapore) at the National University of Singapore (NUS) has uncovered a new clue that may help fight acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the most common form of cancer of the blood and bone marrow, and an aggressive type of cancer. The findings open […]

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Moments of acute stress can cause molecular alterations in immune response

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Chronic psychosocial and emotional stress has well-documented negative effects upon the human immune system, measurably increasing the risk of disease. Much less is known about the health effects of acute but transitory episodes of stress, such as jumping out of an airplane. Do these panic-inducing moments also raise the risk of stress-related conditions and disorders, […]

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Fungal pathogen sheds gene silencing machinery and becomes more dangerous

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For more than a decade, a rare but potentially deadly fungus called Cryptococcus deuterogatti has taken up residence in the Pacific Northwest and Vancouver Island. Unlike its cousin Cryptococcus neoformans, which mostly infects patients with compromised immune systems, this fungus has sickened hundreds of otherwise healthy people. Now, researchers have found that the pathogen tossed […]

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Likely biological link found between Zika virus, microcephaly

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Working with lab-grown human stem cells, a team of researchers suspect they have discovered how the Zika virus probably causes microcephaly in fetuses. The virus selectively infects cells that form the brain’s cortex, or outer layer, making them more likely to die and less likely to divide normally and make new brain cells. The researchers […]

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