Tag Archives: Internal Medicine (Cardiology)

* Researchers unearth county colic risk in horses

A particular gastrointestinal disorder, which causes colic, or abdominal pain, in horses, is more prevalent in Lancashire compared with other nearby counties, according to researchers at Lancaster University and the University of Liverpool. They have also found that Idiopathic Focal Eosinophilic Enteritis (IFEE), lesions causing an obstruction in a horse’s small intestine, is actually seasonal […]

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Could a wireless pacemaker let hackers take control of your heart?

In a 2012 episode of the TV series Homeland, Vice President William Walden is assassinated by a terrorist who hacks into his Internet-enabled heart pacemaker and accelerates his heartbeat until he has a heart attack. A flight of fancy? Not everyone thinks so. Internet security experts have been warning for years that such devices are […]

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Thyroid hormones reduce animal cardiac arrhythmias

In the NIH-funded study, published in the Journal of Cardiac Failure, the team found that thyroid hormone replacement therapy significantly reduced the incidence of atrial fibrillation — a specific kind of irregular heartbeat, or arrhythmia — in the rats, compared to a control group that did not receive the hormones. The finding could have important […]

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* Ciliopathies lie behind many human diseases

Cilia perform a broad range of functions, including a starring role in cell signalling. Motile ones wiggle and so move fluids within the body, including cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. In humans, cilia are found on almost every cell in the body. Because of this, ciliopathies often make themselves known as syndromes with widely varying […]

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Piecing together signaling pathway leading to obesity

A team of researchers led by the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine’s Kendra K. Bence have now drawn connections between known regulators of body mass, pointing to possible treatments for obesity and metabolic disorders. Their work also presents intriguing clues that these same molecular pathways may play a role in learning and perhaps […]

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*Dolphin ‘breathalyzer’ could help diagnose animal and ocean health

Alcohol consumption isn’t the only thing a breath analysis can reveal. Scientists have been studying its possible use for diagnosing a wide range of conditions in humans — and now in the beloved bottlenose dolphin. In a report in the ACS journal Analytical Chemistry, one team describes a new instrument that can analyze the metabolites […]

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Complexity of diabetes: More to tiny fluctuations in blood sugar than meets the eye

For millions of people in the United States living with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, measuring the daily rise and fall of blood glucose (sugar) is a way of life. Our body’s energy is primarily governed by glucose in the blood, and blood sugar itself is exquisitely controlled by a complicated set of network […]

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Pneumonia bacterium leaves tiny lesions in the heart

The long-observed association between pneumonia and heart failure now has more physical evidence, thanks to research in the School of Medicine at The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. The researchers found proof that Streptococcus pneumoniae, the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia, actually physically damages the heart. The bacterium leaves tiny lesions […]

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Reversing the effects of pulmonary fibrosis with a microRNA mimic

Yale University researchers are studying a potential new treatment that reverses the effects of pulmonary fibrosis, a respiratory disease in which scars develop in the lungs and severely hamper breathing. The treatment uses a microRNA mimic, miR-29, which is delivered to lung tissue intravenously. In mouse models, miR-29 not only blocked pulmonary fibrosis, it reversed […]

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* Milestone reached in work to build replacement kidneys in the lab

“Until now, lab-built kidneys have been rodent-sized and have functioned for only one or two hours after transplantation because blood clots developed,” said Anthony Atala, M.D., director and professor at the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine and a senior author on the study. “In our proof-of-concept study, the vessels in a human-sized pig kidney […]

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Fever’s origin discovered by researchers

Fever is a response to inflammation, and is triggered by an onset of the signaling substance prostaglandin. Researchers at Linköping University in Sweden can now see precisely where these substances are produced — a discovery that paves the way for smarter drugs. When you take an aspirin, all production of prostaglandins in the body is […]

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Contrary to popular belief, more exercise is not always better

There is strong epidemiological evidence of the importance of regular physical activity, such as brisk walking and jogging, in the management and rehabilitation of cardiovascular disease and in lowering the risk of death from other diseases such as hypertension, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommends about 150 minutes per […]

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Curing rheumatoid arthritis in mice: Antibody-based delivery of IL4

Rheumatoid arthritis is a condition that causes painful inflammation of several joints in the body. The joint capsule becomes swollen, and the disease can also destroy cartilage and bone as it progresses. Rheumatoid arthritis affects 0.5% to 1% of the world’s population. Up to this point, doctors have used various drugs to slow or stop […]

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Plump grizzlies offer diabetes clue

As summer fades to autumn each year, grizzly bears embark on a wild, gluttonous feast. By the time they settle down for their long winter snooze, they have plenty of fat stores to last through the cold. Yet despite this annual descent into obesity, researchers have found that the bears don’t succumb to metabolic ailments […]

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New brain pathways for understanding type 2 diabetes and obesity uncovered

Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have identified neural pathways that increase understanding of how the brain regulates body weight, energy expenditure, and blood glucose levels — a discovery that can lead to new therapies for treating Type 2 diabetes and obesity. The study, published in Nature Neuroscience, found that melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4Rs) expressed […]

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Preventing weight gain, obesity, and ultimately diabetes could be as simple as keeping a nuclear receptor from being activated

Published in the Aug. 1 issue of The Journal of Clinical Investigation (JCI), the study showed that when the researchers blocked the effects of the nuclear receptor PPARgamma in a small number of brain cells in mice, the animals ate less and became resistant to a high-fat diet. “These animals ate fat and sugar, and […]

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‘Rewired’ mice show signs of longer lives with fewer age-related illnesses

While developing a new cancer drug, researchers discovered that mice lacking a specific protein live longer lives with fewer age-related illnesses. The mice, which lack the TRAP-1 protein, demonstrated less age related tissue degeneration, obesity, and spontaneous tumor formation when compared to normal mice. Their findings could change how scientists view the metabolic networks within […]

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Gene therapy creates biological pacemaker

Gene therapy could soon join the electronic pacemaker as a treatment for a weak heart. By inserting a specific gene into heart-muscle cells, researchers can restore a normal heart rate in pigs — at least temporarily. Electronic pacemakers restore regular function to slowing and arhythmic hearts by using electricity to stimulate their beating — a […]

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* Malaria control: The great mosquito hunt

From dogs to balloons, researchers are using unorthodox ways to find out where malaria vectors hide during a long dry season. The armed guards at Mali’s BamakoSenouInternationalAirport had never seen a German shepherd before. The only dogs they were familiar with were the small, scrappy mixed breeds that are common in West Africa. So when […]

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* Obesity alone does not cause arthritis in animals

The link between obesity and osteoarthritis may be more than just the wear and tear on the skeleton caused by added weight. A DukeUniversity study has found that the absence of the appetite hormone leptin can determine whether obese mice experience arthritis, no matter how heavy they are. We were completely surprised to find that […]

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One injection stops diabetes in its tracks

In mice with diet-induced diabetes — the equivalent of type 2 diabetes in humans — a single injection of the protein FGF1 is enough to restore blood sugar levels to a healthy range for more than two days. The discovery by Salk scientists, published today in the journal Nature, could lead to a new generation […]

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* Overweight zoo elephants no laughing matter

African elephants in captivity are getting fat. While the thought of a pudgy pachyderm might produce a chuckle, it is a situation with potentially serious consequences for the species. “Obesity affects about 40 percent of African elephants in captivity,” said Daniella Chusyd, M.A., a doctoral student in the University of Alabama at Birmingham Department of […]

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* How stress can clog your arteries

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There’s a reason people say “Calm down or you’re going to have a heart attack.” Chronic stress—such as that brought on by job, money, or relationship troubles—is suspected to increase the risk of a heart attack. Now, researchers studying harried medical residents and harassed rodents have offered an explanation for how, at a physiological level, […]

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Spurt of heart muscle cell division seen in mice well after birth: Implications for repair of congenital heart defects

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The entire heart muscle in young children may hold untapped potential for regeneration, new research suggests. For decades, scientists believed that after a child’s first few days of life, cardiac muscle cells did not divide. Instead, the assumption was that the heart could only grow by having the muscle cells become larger. Cracks were already […]

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Stem cell therapy regenerates heart muscle damaged from heart attacks in primates

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Heart cells created from human embryonic stem cells successfully restored damaged heart muscles in monkeys. The results of the experiment appear in the April 30 advanced online edition of the journal Nature in a paper titled, “Human embryonic-stem cell derived cardiomyocytes regenerate non-human primate hearts.”  The findings suggest that the approach should be feasible in […]

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Doubts over heart stem-cell therapy

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Many companies around the world offer stem-cell treatments to patients with heart disease. An analysis of clinical studies that use adult stem cells to treat heart disease has raised questions about the value of a therapy that many consider inappropriately hyped. Early-phase clinical trials have reported that adult stem cells are effective in treating heart attack […]

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Fat metabolism in animals altered to prevent most common type of heart disease

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In a series of experiments, the Johns Hopkins team says it identified and halted the action of a single molecular culprit responsible for a range of biological glitches that affect the body’s ability to properly use, transport and purge itself of cholesterol — the fatty substance that accumulates inside vessels and fuels heart disease. Working […]

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Overuse of blood transfusions increases infection risk

Blood transfusions are one of the most common procedures patients receive in the hospital but the more red blood cells they receive, the greater their risk of infection, says a new study led by the University of Michigan Heath System and VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System. Researchers analyzed 21 randomized controlled trials for the study […]

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Monkeys that cut calories live longer

Monkeys on a reduced-calorie diet live longer than those that can eat as much as they want, a new study suggests. The findings add to a thread of studies on how a restricted diet prolongs life in a range of species, but they complicate the debate over whether the research applies to animals closely related […]

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Gout isn’t always easy to prove: CT scans help catch cases traditional test misses

“The first flare of gout most commonly occurs in the big toe, but gout can affect pretty much every joint in the body, and the more gout flares you have the more likelihood that other joint areas will be affected,” Dr. Bongartz says. Gout is on the rise among U.S. men and women, and this […]

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