Tag Archives: Oncology

Modifying a living genome with genetic equivalent of ‘search and replace’

Researchers including George Church have made further progress on the path to fully rewriting the genome of living bacteria. Such a recoded organism, once available, could feature functionality not seen in nature. It could also make the bacteria cultivated in pharmaceutical and other industries immune to viruses, saving billions of dollars of losses due to […]

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* Scientists test nanoparticle drug delivery in dogs with osteosarcoma

At the University of Illinois, an engineer teamed up with a veterinarian to test a bone cancer drug delivery system in animals bigger than the standard animal model, the mouse. They chose dogs — mammals closer in size and biology to humans — with naturally occurring bone cancers, which also are a lot like human […]

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Hybrid treatment hunts down and kills leukemia cells

Researchers at UC Davis and Ionis Pharmaceuticals have developed a hybrid treatment that harnesses a monoclonal antibody to deliver antisense DNA to acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells and that may lead to less toxic treatments for the disease. The study, published in the journal Molecular Medicine, demonstrated that once delivered, the therapeutic DNA reduced levels […]

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New signaling pathway for programmed cell death identified in leukemia cells

When adults develop blood cancer, they are frequently diagnosed with what is referred to as acute myeloid leukemia. The disease is triggered by pathological alterations of bone marrow cells, in which, in addition, an important mechanism is out of action: these cells do not die when they are damaged. Researchers from the Technical University of […]

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Imaging technique could help focus breast cancer treatment

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Cancer Research UK scientists have used imaging techniques as a new way to identify patients who could benefit from certain breast cancer treatments, according to a study published in Oncotarget. The team at King’s College London, in collaboration with scientists at the CRUK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, used fluorescence lifetime imaging to confirm if […]

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* Infectious shellfish cancers may jump across species

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Transmissible cancers have been found in shellfish, including cockles (Cerastoderma edule) collected in Galicia, Spain. Some clams, mussels and other bivalve molluscs carry infectious cancer cells that can leap between individuals — and that may even have jumped between species. The discovery, reported on 22 June in Nature, means that transmissible tumours have now been […]

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* Cancer-causing virus strikes genetically vulnerable horses

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Sarcoid skin tumors are the most common form of cancer in horses, but little is known about why the papillomavirus behind them strikes some horses and not others. A new study by an international research group led by scientists at the Baker Institute for Animal Health at Cornell’s College of Veterinary Medicine shows genetic differences […]

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* Fighting cancer with the help of someone else’s immune cells

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A new step in cancer immunotherapy: researchers from the Netherlands Cancer Institute and University of Oslo/Oslo University Hospital show that even if one’s own immune cells cannot recognize and fight their tumors, someone else’s immune cells might. Their proof of principle study is published in the journal Science on May 19th. The study shows that […]

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Long-term survival achieved in metastatic melanoma with personalized vaccine

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Robert O. Dillman, MD, formerly Vice President Oncology, Caladrius Biosciences, Inc. and currently Chief Medical Officer, NeoStem Oncology (Irvine, CA) and Executive Medical and Scientific Director, Hoag Cancer Institute (Newport Beach, CA) discusses the typically poor prognosis for patients with melanoma of the eye or skin that spreads to the liver, and reports on the […]

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Study of glioma susceptibility in dogs may yield insights for humans

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A new study of the genetic factors underlying glioma formation in dogs may hold clues to how these common and often untreatable tumors form in humans. The genome study, which was conducted across 25 dog breeds, identified three genes associated with the tumor. The results from this research, led by Katarina Truvé of the Swedish […]

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* Using precision-genetics in pigs to beat cancer

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Pigs could be a valuable alternative to rodent models of cancer. The numbers are staggering: more than 40 % is the lifetime risk of developing cancer in the U.S., with only 66 % survival-rates 5 years after diagnosis, for all types of cancer. Trends suggest that in 2015, over 1.6 million new cases were diagnosed […]

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Targeted missiles against aggressive cancer cells

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Targeted missiles that can enter cancer cells and deliver lethal cell toxins without harming surrounding healthy tissue. This has been a long-standing vision in cancer research, but it has proved difficult to accomplish. A research group at Lund University in Sweden has now taken some crucial steps in this direction. “For several years, we tried […]

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Researchers push for personalized tumour vaccines

It is precision medicine taken to the extreme: cancer-fighting vaccines that are custom designed for each patient according to the mutations in their individual tumours. With early clinical trials showing promise, that extreme could one day become commonplace — but only if drug developers can scale up and speed up the production of their tailored […]

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Dressed to kill: Tailoring a suit for tumor-penetrating cancer medications

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For more than a decade, biomedical researchers have been looking for better ways to deliver cancer-killing medication directly to tumors in the body. Tiny capsules, called nanoparticles, are now being used to transport chemotherapy medicine through the bloodstream, to the doorstep of cancerous tumors. But figuring out the best way for the particles to get […]

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Radiation improves survival in older patients with soft tissue sarcomas

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UC Davis researchers have shown that radiation therapy following surgery benefits older patients more than their younger counterparts, a surprising finding that could change the way some patients are treated for soft tissue sarcomas (STS). The study, published in the journal Anticancer Research, used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program to […]

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Individualized cancer treatment targeting the tumor, not the whole body, a step closer

They look like small, translucent gems but these tiny ‘gel’ slivers hold the world of a patient’s tumour in microcosm ready for trials of anti-cancer drugs to find the best match between treatment and tumour. The ‘gel’ is a new 3D printable material developed by QUT researchers that opens the way to rapid, personalised cancer […]

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New proteins discovered that link obesity-driven diabetes to cancer

For the first time, researchers have determined how bromodomain (BRD) proteins work in type 2 diabetes, which may lead to a better understanding of the link between adult-onset diabetes and certain cancers. The findings, which appear in PLOS ONE, show that reducing levels in pancreatic beta cells of individual BRDs, called BET proteins, previously shown […]

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New clue to fighting acute myeloid leukemia found

A study led by researchers from the Cancer Science Institute of Singapore (CSI Singapore) at the National University of Singapore (NUS) has uncovered a new clue that may help fight acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the most common form of cancer of the blood and bone marrow, and an aggressive type of cancer. The findings open […]

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Fat mice provide clue to obesity-colon cancer puzzle

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Obese mice — like obese humans — are at increased risk of colon cancer, and a study published today in Nature finally suggests why. Overweight mice fed a high-fat diet showed an increase in intestinal stem cells due to activation of a protein called PPAR-δ that regulates metabolism. If the results hold true in humans, […]

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Breast cancer: An improved animal model opens up new treatments

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EPFL scientists have developed an animal model for breast cancer that faithfully captures the disease. Tested on human breast tissue, this the most clinically realistic model of breast cancer to date. Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, affecting one in eight women. There are different types of breast cancer, but […]

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Cancer cells eat their neighbors’ ‘words’

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Cancer cells are well-known as voracious energy consumers, but even veteran cancer-metabolism researcher Deepak Nagrath was surprised by their latest exploit: Experiments in his lab at Rice University show that some cancer cells get 30-60 percent of their fuel from eating their neighbors’ “words.” “Our original hypothesis was that cancer cells were modifying their metabolism […]

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* Groundbreaking discovery made use skin cells to kill cancer

Skin cells turned cancer-killing stem cells hunt down, destroy deadly remnants inevitably left behind when a brain tumor is surgically removed In a first for medical science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill pharmacy researchers turn skin cells into cancer-hunting stem cells that destroy brain tumors known as glioblastoma — a discovery that can […]

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Potential therapy for most aggressive type of lung cancer in preclinical models

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Lung cancer is one of the most prevalent types of cancer, with more than 20,000 new cases diagnosed each year in Spain. Lung adenocarcinomas carrying oncogenic KRAS, the engine driving these tumours in 30% of cases, constitute the most aggressive sub-type because, unlike other types of lung cancer, there are no targeted therapies beyond the […]

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* Molecular processes for targeted dog cancer therapy investigated

Dogs get cancer, just like humans. Scientists at the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna are now exploring the molecular basis of cancer progression in canine cell lines. Modern cancer therapy has been revolutionized with the introduction of new drugs, so-called ‘targeted drugs’, but the basis for the application of these new agents in cancer therapy […]

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Novel RNA delivery system may treat incurable blood cancers

With a median survival rate of just five to seven years, Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) is considered the most aggressive known blood cancer — and available therapies are scarce. Three thousand Americans are diagnosed with MCL every year, and despite progress in personalized therapies to treat metastases elsewhere in the body, systemic therapeutic drug delivery […]

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DNA repair enzyme identified as a potential brain cancer drug target

Rapidly dividing cells rely on an enzyme called Dicer to help them repair the DNA damage that occurs as they make mistakes in copying their genetic material over and over for new cells. UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers have built on the discovery of Dicer’s role in fixing DNA damage to uncover a new […]

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Endangered foxes on Catalina Island get promising treatment to reduce ear tumors

A team of scientists led by UC Davis found alarming rates of ear mites and ear canal tumors in the endangered foxes. Ear mite treatments they initiated have since dramatically reduced the problem, their studies show. Until recently, endangered foxes on California’s Catalina Island were suffering from one of the highest prevalences of tumors ever […]

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Study uncovers hard-to-detect cancer mutations

New research shows that current approaches to genome analysis systematically miss detecting a certain type of complex mutation in cancer patients’ tumors. Further, a significant percentage of these complex mutations are found in well-known cancer genes that could be targeted by existing drugs, potentially expanding the number of cancer patients who may benefit. The study, […]

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Cancer studies clash over mechanisms of malignicy

The proliferation of blood cells in leukaemia is just one example of unchecked tissue growth associated with cancer — but the extent to which external and internal factors drive this process is open to debate. Most cases of cancer result from avoidable factors such as toxic chemicals and radiation, contends a study published online in […]

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Tumor network in brain increases treatment resistance

Astrocytomas are special type of brain tumours that are difficult to treat, because they do not respond to standard forms of treatment. One reason for this resistance could be their ability to form a communication network. This was discovered by scientists taking part in an international study involving experts from the Comprehensive Cancer Center (CCC) […]

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