Tag Archives: Ophthalmology

Snakes have adapted their vision to hunt their prey day or night

For example, snakes that need good eyesight to hunt during the day have eye lenses that act as sunglasses, filtering out ultraviolet light and sharpening their vision while nocturnal snakes have lenses that allow ultraviolet light through, helping them to see in the dark. New insights into the relationship between ultraviolet (UV) filters and hunting […]

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No blue light, please, I’m tired: Light color determines sleepiness versus arousal in mice

Light affects sleep. A study in mice published in Open Access journal PLOS Biology shows that the actual color of light matters; blue light keeps mice awake longer while green light puts them to sleep easily. An accompanying Primer provides accessible context information and discusses open questions and potential implications for “designing the lighting of […]

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How birds unlock their super-sense, ultraviolet vision

The ability of finches, sparrows, and many other birds to see a visual world hidden to us is explained in a study published in the journal eLife. Birds can be divided into those that can see ultraviolet (UV) light and those that cannot. Those that can live in a sensory world apart, able to transmit […]

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* Model helps identify drugs to treat cat eye infections

It’s a problem veterinarians see all the time, but there are few treatments. Feline herpes virus 1 (FHV-1) is a frequent cause of eye infections in cats, but the drugs available to treat these infections must be applied multiple times a day and there is scant scientific evidence to support their use. Now scientists at […]

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Current stimulation to the brain partially restores vision in patients with glaucoma and optic nerve damage

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Vision loss due to glaucoma or optic nerve damage is generally considered irreversible. Now a new prospective, randomized, multi-center clinical trial demonstrates significant vision improvement in partially blind patients after 10 days of noninvasive, transorbital alternating current stimulation (ACS). In addition to activation of their residual vision, patients also experienced improvement in vision-related quality of […]

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Stem cells used to identify cellular processes related to glaucoma

Using stem cells derived from human skin cells, researchers led by Jason Meyer, assistant professor of biology, along with graduate student Sarah Ohlemacher of the School of Science at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, have successfully demonstrated the ability to turn stem cells into retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the neurons that conduct visual information from the […]

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* Small birds’ vision: Not so sharp but superfast

One may expect a creature that darts around its habitat to be capable of perceiving rapid changes as well. Yet birds are famed more for their good visual acuity. Joint research by Uppsala University, Stockholm University and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) now shows that, in small passerines (perching birds) in the wild, […]

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* Vision restored in rabbits following stem cell transplantation

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Scientists have demonstrated a method for generating several key types of eye tissue from human stem cells in a way that mirrors whole eye development. When transplanted to an animal model of corneal blindness, these tissues are shown to repair the front of the eye and restore vision, which scientists say could pave the way […]

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* Magnetoreception molecule found in the eyes of dogs, primates

Dog-like carnivores, some primate species may have a magnetic compass similar to that of birds. Cryptochromes are light-sensitive molecules that exist in bacteria, plants and animals. In animals, they are involved in the control of the body’s circadian rhythms. In birds, cryptochromes are also involved in the light-dependent magnetic orientation response based on Earth’s magnetic […]

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Radiation causes blindness in wild animals in Chernobyl

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This year marks 30 years since the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Vast amounts of radioactive particles spread over large areas in Europe. These particles, mostly Cesium-137, cause a low but long-term exposure to ionizing radiation in animals and plants. This chronic exposure has been shown to decrease the abundances of many animal species both after the […]

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The magnetic compass of birds is affected by polarized light

The magnetic compass that birds use for orientation is affected by polarised light. This previously unknown phenomenon was discovered by researchers at Lund University in Sweden. The discovery that the magnetic compass is affected by the polarisation direction of light was made when trained zebra finches were trying to find food inside a maze. The […]

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Restoring vision: Retinal nerve cell regeneration

Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Vision loss from glaucoma occurs when axons in the optic nerve become damaged and can no longer carry visual information to the brain. Glaucoma is most often treated by lowering pressure in the eye with drugs, laser surgery, or traditional surgery. However, these treatments can only preserve […]

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* Study stops vision loss in late-stage canine X-linked retinitis pigmentosa

Three years ago, a team from the University of Pennsylvania announced that they had cured X-linked retinitis pigmentosa, a blinding retinal disease, in dogs. Now they’ve shown that they can cure the canine disease over the long term, even when the treatment is given after half or more of the affected photoreceptor cells have been […]

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* Genetic mutations linked to a form of blindness

Achromatopsia is a rare, inherited vision disorder that affects the eye’s cone cells, resulting in problems with daytime vision, clarity and color perception. It often strikes people early in life, and currently there is no cure for the condition. One of the most promising avenues for developing a cure, however, is through gene therapy, and […]

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Pupil shape linked to animals’ ecological niche

While the eyes may be a window into one’s soul, new research led by scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, suggests that the pupils could also reveal whether one is a hunter or hunted. An analysis of 214 species of land animals shows that a creature’s ecological niche is a strong predictor of pupil […]

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Mobile-phone microscope detects eye parasite

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A device that mounts on a mobile phone is used to diagnose African eye worm at a clinic in Cameroon. To diagnose diseases in people living in remote locations, clinicians have traditionally preferred a low-tech approach because battery-powered electronic devices can be too delicate and fussy for clinics in the developing world. But now that […]

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Ophthalmologists uncover autoimmune process that causes rejection of secondary corneal transplants

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UT Southwestern Medical Center ophthalmologists have identified an important cause of why secondary corneal transplants are rejected at triple the rate of first-time corneal transplants. The cornea — the most frequently transplanted solid tissue — has a first-time transplantation success rate of about 90 percent. But second corneal transplants undergo a rejection rate three times […]

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Stem cell injection may soon reverse vision loss caused by age-related macular degeneration

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An injection of stem cells into the eye may soon slow or reverse the effects of early-stage age-related macular degeneration, according to new research from scientists at Cedars-Sinai. Currently, there is no treatment that slows the progression of the disease, which is the leading cause of vision loss in people over 65. “This is the […]

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* Artificial retina could someday help restore vision

The loss of eyesight, often caused by retinal degeneration, is a life-altering health issue for many people, especially as they age. But a new development toward a prosthetic retina could help counter conditions that result from problems with this crucial part of the eye. Scientists published their research on a new device, which they tested […]

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* First report of long-term safety of human embryonic stem cells to treat human disease

New research published in The Lancet provides the first evidence of the medium- to long-term safety and tolerability of transplanting human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in humans. hESC transplants used to treat severe vision loss in 18 patients with different forms of macular degeneration appeared safe up to 3 years post-transplant, and the technology restored […]

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Japanese woman is first recipient of next-generation stem cells

Researchers were able to grow sheets of retinal tissue from induced pluripotent stem cells, and have now implanted them for the first time in a patient. A Japanese woman in her 70s is the world’s first recipient of cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells, a technology that has created great expectations since it could […]

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Running cures blind mice

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Running helps mice to recover from a type of blindness caused by sensory deprivation early in life, researchers report. The study, published on 26 June in eLife, also illuminates processes underlying the brain’s ability to rewire itself in response to experience — a phenomenon known as plasticity, which neuroscientists believe is the basis of learning. […]

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New neural pathway found in eyes that aids in vision

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A type of retina cell plays a more critical role in vision than previously known, a team led by Johns Hopkins University researchers has discovered. Working with mice, the scientists found that the ipRGCs — an atypical type of photoreceptor in the retina — help detect contrast between light and dark, a crucial element in […]

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Wiring of retina reveals how eyes sense motion

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It is sometimes said that we see with the brain rather than the eyes, but this is not entirely true. People can only make sense of visual information once it has been interpreted by the brain, but some of this information is processed partly by neurons in the retina. In particular, 50 years ago researchers […]

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New structure in dogs’ eye linked to blinding retinal diseases

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The fovea-like area in dogs with a form of macular degeneration was affected much like humans with the disease. In humans, a tiny area in the center of the retina called the fovea is critically important to viewing fine details. Densely packed with cone photoreceptor cells, it is used while reading, driving and gazing at […]

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Lab-grown, virus-free stem cells repair retinal tissue in mice

Retinal vessel being repaired. The white arrow shows iPSC-derived vascular stem cells incorporating into a damaged retinal blood vessel and repairing it. Investigators at Johns Hopkins report they have developed human induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) capable of repairing damaged retinal vascular tissue in mice. The stem cells, derived from human umbilical cord-blood and coaxed into […]

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Image perception in the blink of an eye

Imagine seeing a dozen pictures flash by in a fraction of a second. You might think it would be impossible to identify any images you see for such a short time. However, a team of neuroscientists from MIT has found that the human brain can process entire images that the eye sees for as little […]

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Cell death pathway involved in three forms of blindness, study finds

Gene therapies developed by University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine researchers have worked to correct different forms of blindness. While effective, the downside to these approaches to vision rescue is that each disease requires its own form of gene therapy to correct the particular genetic mutation involved, a time consuming and complex process. Hoping […]

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Snakes control blood flow to aid vision

A new study from the University of Waterloo shows that snakes can optimize their vision by controlling the blood flow in their eyes when they perceive a threat. Kevin van Doorn, PhD, and Professor Jacob Sivak, from the Faculty of Science, discovered that the coachwhip snake’s visual blood flow patterns change depending on what’s in […]

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A novel locus identified for glaucoma in Dandie Dinmont Terrier dog breed

Professor Hannes Lohi’s research group at the University of Helsinki and Folkhälsan Research Center, Finland, has identified a novel locus for glaucoma in Dandie Dinmont Terrier. The locus on canine chromosome 8 includes a 9.5 Mb region that is associated with glaucoma. The canine locus shares synteny to human chromosome 14, which has been previously […]

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