Tag Archives: Ophthalmology

Rats have a double view of the world

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Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics in Tübingen, using miniaturised high-speed cameras and high-speed behavioural tracking, discovered that rats move their eyes in opposite directions in both the horizontal and the vertical plane when running around. Each eye moves in a different direction, depending on the change in the animal’s head position. […]

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Novel disease in songbirds demonstrates evolution in the blink of an eye

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A novel disease in songbirds has rapidly evolved to become more harmful to its host on at least two separate occasions in just two decades, according to a new study. The research provides a real-life model to help understand how diseases that threaten humans can be expected to change in virulence as they emerge. “Everybody […]

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Stem cells cruise to clinic

Japanese study of induced pluripotent stem cells aims to demonstrate safety in humans. Induced pluripotent stem cells could soon be used in human trials in Japan. In the seven years since their discovery, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have transformed basic research and won a Nobel prize. Now, a Japanese study is about to test […]

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Eyes work without connection to brain: Ectopic eyes function without natural connection to brain

For the first time, scientists have shown that transplanted eyes located far outside the head in a vertebrate animal model can confer vision without a direct neural connection to the brain. Biologists at Tufts University School of Arts and Sciences used a frog model to shed new light — literally — on one of the […]

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Dogs recognize the dog species among several other species on a computer screen

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Dogs pick out faces of other dogs, irrespective of breeds, among human and other domestic and wild animal faces and can group them into a category of their own. They do that using visual cues alone, according to new research by Dr. Dominique Autier-Dérian from the LEEC and National Veterinary School in Lyon in France […]

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The Food and Drug Administration approved the first retinal implant for use in the United States.

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FDA’s green light for Second Sight’s Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System gives hope to those blinded by a rare genetic eye condition called advanced retinitis pigmentosa, which damages the light-sensitive cells that line the retina. For Second Sight, FDA approval follows more than 20 years of development, two clinical trials and more than $200 million […]

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Color vision: Explaining primates’ red-green vision

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Our eyes are complicated organs, with the retina in the back of the eyeball comprising hundreds of millions of neurons that allow us to see, and to do so in color. Scientists have long known that some retinal ganglion cells — neurons connecting the retina to the rest of the brain — are tuned to […]

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Amblyopia cat: Turn off the lights

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A new study in cats reveals that even brief periods in total darkness can correct the vision disorder amblyopia. A stint in the dark may be just what the doctor ordered—at least if you have “lazy eye.” Researchers report that kittens with the disorder, a visual impairment medically known as amblyopia that leads to poor […]

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Development of new corneal cell line provides powerful tool

Human corneal endothelial cells (HCEnCs) form a monolayer of hexagonal cells whose main function is to maintain corneal clarity by regulating corneal hydration. Cell loss due to aging or corneal endothelial disorders, such as Fuchs dystrophy, can lead to cornea edema and blindness, resulting in the need for cornea transplants. Studying human corneal endothelium has […]

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Early predictor for glaucoma identified

A new study finds that certain changes in blood vessels in the eye’s retina can be an early warning that a person is at increased risk for glaucoma, an eye disease that slowly robs people of their peripheral vision. Using diagnostic photos and other data from the Australian Blue Mountains Eye Study, the researchers showed […]

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New study shows effects of prehistoric nocturnal life on mammalian vision

Since the age of dinosaurs, most species of day-active mammals have retained the imprint of nocturnal life in their eye structures. Humans and other anthropoid primates, such as monkeys and apes, are the only groups that deviate from this pattern, according to a new study from The University of Texas at Austin and Midwestern University. […]

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An artificial retina with the capacity to restore normal vision

Two researchers at Weill Cornell Medical College have deciphered a mouse’s retina’s neural code and coupled this information to a novel prosthetic device to restore sight to blind mice. The researchers say they have also cracked the code for a monkey retina — which is essentially identical to that of a human — and hope […]

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Glaucoma as neurologic disorder rather than eye disease?

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A new paradigm to explain glaucoma is rapidly emerging, and it is generating brain-based treatment advances that may ultimately vanquish the disease known as the “sneak thief of sight.” A review now available in Ophthalmology, the journal of the American Academy of Ophthalmology, reports that some top researchers no longer think of glaucoma solely as […]

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Scientists produce eye structures from human blood-derived stem cells

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For the first time, scientists at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have made early retina structures containing proliferating neuroretinal progenitor cells using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from human blood. And in another advance, the retina structures showed the capacity to form layers of cells – as the retina does in normal human development – […]

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Stem cells can repair a damaged cornea

A new cornea may be the only way to prevent a patient going blind — but there is a shortage of donated corneas and the queue for transplantation is long. Scientists at the Sahlgrenska Academy have for the first time successfully cultivated stem cells on human corneas, which may in the long term remove the […]

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Cornea gene discovery reveals why humans see clearly

A transparent cornea is essential for vision, which is why the eye has evolved to nourish the cornea without blood vessels. But for millions of people around the world, diseases of the eye or trauma spur the growth of blood vessels and can cause blindness. A new Northwestern Medicine study has identified a gene that […]

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Gene expression in mouse neural retina sequenced

In a new study, researchers have gained new insights into neural disease genes by sequencing virtually all the gene expression in the mouse neural retina. The technology to obtain such a “transcriptome” has become accessible enough that full-scale sequencing is the preferred method for asking genetics questions. The population of Eric Morrow’s seminar “Neurogenetics and […]

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Fast high precision eye-surgery robot developed

Researcher Thijs Meenink at Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) has developed a smart eye-surgery robot that allows eye surgeons to operate with increased ease and greater precision on the retina and the vitreous humor of the eye. The system also extends the effective period during which ophthalmologists can carry out these intricate procedures. Meenink defended […]

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Laser’s precision and simplicity could revolutionize cataract surgery

Two new studies add to the growing body of evidence that a new approach to cataract surgery may be safer and more efficient than today’s standard procedure. The new approach, using a special femtosecond laser, is FDA-approved, but not yet widely available in the United States. It’s one of the hottest topics at the 115th […]

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Owl study expands understanding of human stereovision

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Using owls as a model, a new research study reveals the advantage of stereopsis, commonly referred to as stereovision, is its ability to discriminate between objects and background, not in perceiving absolute depth. The findings were published in a recent Journal of Vision article entitled “Owls see in stereo much like humans do.” The purpose […]

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Birds’ eye view is far more colorful than our own

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The brilliant colors of birds have inspired poets and nature lovers, but researchers at Yale University and the University of Cambridge say these existing hues represent only a fraction of what birds are capable of seeing. The findings based on study of the avian visual system, reported in the June 23 issue of the journal […]

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Sections of retinas regenerated and visual function increased with stem cells from skin

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Scientists from Schepens Eye Research Institute are the first to regenerate large areas of damaged retinas and improve visual function using IPS cells (induced pluripotent stem cells) derived from skin. The results of their study, which is published in PLoS ONE this month, hold great promise for future treatments and cures for diseases such as […]

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Gene therapy shows promise against age-related macular degeneration

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A gene therapy approach using a protein called CD59, or protectin, shows promise in slowing the signs of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), according to a new in vivo study by researchers at Tufts University School of Medicine. Led by senior author Rajendra Kumar-Singh, PhD, the researchers demonstrated for the first time that CD59 delivered by […]

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Homing in on a genetic cause of severe glaucoma, an animal model

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More than half of the cases of blindness due to glaucoma are a result of angle-closure glaucoma (ACG), a less common but far more serious form of the disease. Until now, researchers have made little progress toward understanding the molecular cause of ACG. But Howard Hughes Medical Institute researchers have now developed an animal model […]

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Pig stem cell transplants: The key to future research into retina treatment

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A team of American and Chinese scientists studying the role of stem cells in repairing damaged retina tissue have found that pigs represent an effective proxy species to research treatments for humans. The study, published in Stem Cells, demonstrates how stem cells can be isolated and transplanted between pigs, overcoming a key barrier to the […]

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Spanish researchers replace pig corneal cells with human stem cells

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Researchers at the University of Granada have made progress toward bioartificial organs by extracting pig corneal cells and replacing them with human stem cells. This method, known as decellularization and recellulation, allows scientists to maintain the basic structure of the cornea and replace its cellular components. The research group is composed of professors Antonio Campos […]

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Stem cells make ‘retina in a dish’

A retina made in a laboratory in Japan could pave the way for treatments for human eye diseases, including some forms of blindness. Created by coaxing mouse embryonic stem cells into a precise three-dimensional assembly, the ‘retina in a dish’ is by far and away the most complex biological tissue engineered yet, scientists say. “There’s […]

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Novel insights into glaucoma pathology following identification of glaucoma gene in beagle dogs and humans

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Glaucoma – a leading cause of vision loss and blindness worldwide – runs in families. A team of investigators from Vanderbilt University and the University of Florida has identified a new candidate gene for the most common form of the eye disorder, primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). The findings, reported Feb. 17 in the open-access […]

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Implant appears effective for treating inflammatory disease within the eye

An implant that releases the medication dexamethasone within the eye appears safe and effective for the treatment of some types of uveitis (swelling and inflammation in the eye’s middle layer), according to a report posted online that will appear in the May print issue of Archives of Ophthalmology, one of the JAMA/Archives journals. “Uveitis refers […]

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New cell type implicated in vision

Blind mice appear to retain some ability to sense the brightness of their surroundings thanks to cells that contain the light-sensitive protein melanopsin. Rods and cones hog all the credit for allowing us to see. But these light-sensitive neurons get some help from a much rarer kind of cell, according to a new study. If […]

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