Tag Archives: Ophthalmology

Ocular Thelaziosis in dogs, France

During 2005–2008, veterinary practitioners reported ocular infection by Thelazia spp. nematodes in 115 dogs and 2 cats in southwestern France. Most cases were detected in Dordogne, particularly in 3 counties with numerous strawberry farms, which may favor development of the fruit fly vector. Animal thelaziosis may lead to emergence of human cases. Thelazia spp.(Spirurida, Thelaziidae) […]

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Discovery of a gene linked to the spread of eye melanoma

Although more research is needed, the researchers say the discovery is an important step in understanding why some tumors spread (metastasize) and others don’t. They believe the findings could lead to more effective treatments. Reporting online in the journal Science Express, the team found mutations in a gene called BAP1 in 84 percent of the […]

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New retinal implant enables blind people to see shapes and objects

Research published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B reveals that a group of researchers based in Germany have developed a retinal implant that has allowed three blind people to see shapes and objects within days of the implant being installed. One blind person was even able to identify and find objects placed on a […]

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Eye test for neurological diseases in livestock developed

The eyes of sheep infected with scrapie — a neurological disorder similar to mad cow disease — return an intense, almost-white glow when they’re hit with blue excitation light, according to a research project led by Iowa State University’s Jacob Petrich. The findings suggest technologies and techniques can be developed to quickly and noninvasively test […]

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Promising results of gene therapy to treat diseases of the eye

The easy accessibility of the eye and the established link between specific genetic defects and ocular disorders offer hope for using gene therapy to provide long-term therapeutic benefit. Two reports in the current issue of Human Gene Therapy, a peer-reviewed journal published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., describe the effective replacement of a human gene […]

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Retina created from human embryonic stem cells

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UC Irvine scientists have created an eight-layer, early stage retina from human embryonic stem cells, the first three-dimensional tissue structure to be made from stem cells. It also marks the first step toward the development of transplant-ready retinas to treat eye disorders such as retinitis pigmentosa and macular degeneration that affect millions. “We made a […]

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Gene therapy cures canines of inherited form of day blindness

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Veterinary ophthalmology researchers from the University of Pennsylvania have used gene therapy to restore retinal cone function and day vision in two canine models of congenital achromatopsia, also called rod monochromacy or total color blindness. Achromatopsia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with an estimated prevalence in human beings of about 1 in 30,000 to […]

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Stem cells restore sight in mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa

An international research team led by Columbia University Medical Center successfully used mouse embryonic stem cells to replace diseased retinal cells and restore sight in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa. This strategy could potentially become a new treatment for retinitis pigmentosa, a leading cause of blindness that affects approximately one in 3,000 to 4,000 […]

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Chickens ‘one-up’ humans in ability to see color

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Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have peered deep into the eye of the chicken and found a masterpiece of biological design. Scientists mapped five types of light receptors in the chicken’s eye. They discovered the receptors were laid out in interwoven mosaics that maximized the chicken’s ability to see many […]

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Cornea cell density predictive of graft failure at six months post-transplant

A new predictor of cornea transplant success has been identified by the Cornea Donor Study (CDS) Investigator Group. New analysis of data from the 2008 Specular Microscopy Ancillary Study (SMAS), a subset of the CDS, found that the preoperative donor cell count of endothelial cells, previously considered to be an important predictor of a successful […]

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Clearer view of how eye lens proteins are sorted

New research reveals how proteins that are critical for the transparency of the eye lens are properly sorted and localized in membrane bilayers. The study, published by Cell Press in the November 3rd issue of Biophysical Journal, analyzes how interactions between lipid and protein molecules can selectively concentrate proteins in certain regions of the cell […]

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A chip for the eye? Artificial vision enhancers being put to the test

Visually impaired or blind patients with degenerative retina conditions would be very happy if they were able to regain mobility, find their way around, be able to lead an independent life and to recognize faces and read again. These wishes were documented by a survey conducted by a research team ten years ago to find […]

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Retina cells created from skin-derived stem cells

A team of scientists from the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health has successfully grown multiple types of retina cells from two types of stem cells — suggesting a future in which damaged retinas could be repaired by cells grown from the patient’s own skin. Even sooner, the discovery will lead to […]

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Heat shock proteins provide protection against cataracts

The human eye lens consists of a highly concentrated mix of several proteins. Protective proteins prevent these proteins from aggregating and clumping. If this protective function fails, the lens blurs and the patient develops cataracts. Two research groups at the Department of Chemistry of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM) have succeeded in explaining the molecular […]

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New evidence that popular dietary supplement may help prevent, treat, cataracts

Researchers are reporting evidence from tissue culture experiments that the popular dietary supplement carnosine may help to prevent and treat cataracts, a clouding of the lens of the eye that is a leading cause of vision loss worldwide. In the new study, Enrico Rizzarelli and colleagues note that the only effective treatment for cataracts is […]

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Primate eye evolution: Small evolutionary shifts make big impacts — like developing night vision

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In the developing fetus, cell growth follows a very specific schedule. In the eye’s retina, for example, cones — which help distinguish color during the day — develop before the more light-sensitive rods — which are needed for night vision. But minor differences in the timing of cell proliferation can explain the large differences found […]

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Secret to night vision found in DNA’s unconventional ‘architecture’

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Researchers have discovered an important element for making night vision possible in nocturnal mammals: the DNA within the photoreceptor rod cells responsible for low light vision is packaged in a very unconventional way, according to a report in the April 17th issue of Cell. That special DNA architecture turns the rod cell nuclei themselves into […]

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Stem cell therapy makes cloudy corneas clear

Stem cells collected from human corneas restore transparency and don’t trigger a rejection response when injected into eyes that are scarred and hazy, according to experiments conducted in mice by researchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. Their study will be published in the journal Stem Cells and appears online today. The findings […]

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Scientists see the light: how vision sends its message to the brain

New article in The FASEB Journal reports that scientists have finally captured the elusive signaling device our retinas use to tell us what we see. Bethesda, MD—Scientists have known for more than 200 years that vision begins with a series of chemical reactions when light strikes the retina, but the specific chemical processes have largely […]

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Mice made to regrow damaged retina nerve cells

Researchers at the University of Washington (UW) have reported for the first time that mammals can be stimulated to regrow inner nerve cells in their damaged retinas. Located in the back of the eye, the retina’s role in vision is to convert light into nerve impulses to the brain. The findings on retina self-repair in […]

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As rods go, so go the cones

Rod cells in our eyes help us see in dim light. They also ensure that the cones, the other light-sensitive cells we depend on for vision, get enough food, a new study reveals. The findings may shed light on a common cause of blindness. Approximately 100,000 people in the United States have retinitis pigmentosa, an […]

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New treatment method for canine eye diseases developed

An Iowa State University researcher is exploring a new method of getting medicine to the eyes of infected dogs that is more effective and reliable than using eye drops. Dr. Sinisa Grozdanic, an assistant professor of veterinary clinical sciences at Iowa State’s College of Veterinary Medicine, is working with a drug manufacturer to develop a […]

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Therapeutic effect of a potent IL-12/IL-23 inhibitor STA-5326 on experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis

The purpose of this study was to determine whether oral administration of the IL-12/IL-23 inhibitor, STA-5326, is effective in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU). C57BL/6J mice were immunized with human interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein peptide (IRBP1-20). STA-5326 at a dose of either 5 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg, or vehicle alone, was orally administered once a day, […]

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The role of stem cells in renewing the cornea

A group of researchers in Switzerland has published a study appearing in the Oct 1 advance online edition of the Journal Nature that shows how the cornea uses stem cells to repair itself. Using mouse models they demonstrate that everyday wear and tear on the cornea is repaired from stem cells residing in the corneal […]

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Retinal transplants see fleeting success

Retina transplants could potentially save the sight of millions. It was six months after her operation that Elisabeth Bryant first started to see the effects, quite literally. Clinically blind, Bryant began to make out the swinging pendulum of her grandfather clock from across the room. Since then her vision improved to the point that she […]

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Mutation found in dachshund gene may help develop therapies for humans with blindness

Cone-rod dystrophies (CRDs) are a group of eye diseases caused by progressive loss of the photoreceptor cells in the retina. Researchers have identified a novel mutation in a gene associated with CRD in dogs, raising hopes that potential therapies can be developed for people suffering from these eye disorders. CRD represents a heterogeneous set of […]

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Blindness in old age may be triggered by hyperactive immune resistance

Age-dependent macular degeneration (AMD) is the commonest cause of blindness in the western industrialised nations. Hereditary changes in the regulation of the immune system influence the risk of contracting AMD. Opthalmologists at the University Clinic in Bonn, working in co-operation with researchers from Göttingen, Regensburg and Great Britain, have now, for the first time, demonstrated […]

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“Mind’s eye” influences visual perception

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Letting your imagination run away with you may actually influence how you see the world. New research from Vanderbilt University has found that mental imagery—what we see with the “mind’s eye”—directly impacts our visual perception. “We found that imagery leads to a short-term memory trace that can bias future perception,” says Joel Pearson, research associate […]

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MicroRNAs appear essential for retinal health

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Retinas in newborn mice appear perfectly fine without any help from tiny bits of genetic material called microRNAs except for one thing — the retinas do not work. In the first-ever study of the effects of the absence of microRNAs in the mammalian eye, an international team of researchers directed by the University of Florida […]

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Blind mice see the light

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Bright lights make treated ‘blind’ mice leap into action. Blind mice have been made to sense light by inserting a protein derived from algae into their eyes. A similar method could one day be used to treat certain forms of blindness in humans, the researchers hope. The light-sensitive protein, called channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), is used by […]

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