Tag Archives: Pathology

Gray seals may be becoming the great white sharks of Dutch beaches

After 10 years of criminal scene investigation–style work, researchers have pinpointed the gray seal as the culprit behind mutilated, stranded harbor porpoises on Dutch beaches. After 10 years of criminal scene investigation–style work, researchers have pinpointed the gray seal as the culprit behind mutilated, stranded harbor porpoises on Dutch beaches. Gray seals may be becoming […]

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‘Safe’ levels of environmental pollution may have long-term health consequences

If you’re eating better and exercising regularly, but still aren’t seeing improvements in your health, there might be a reason: pollution. According to a new research report published in the September issue of The FASEB Journal, what you are eating and doing may not be the problem, but what’s in what you are eating could […]

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New model for staph bone infections outlined

Osteomyelitis, a debilitating bone infection most frequently caused by Staphylococcus aureus (“staph”) bacteria, is particularly challenging to treat. Now, Vanderbilt microbiologist Eric Skaar, Ph.D., MPH, and colleagues have identified a staph-killing compound that may be an effective treatment for osteomyelitis, and they have developed a new mouse model that will be useful for testing this […]

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Flexible tail of the prion protein poisons brain cells

Prion proteins are the infectious pathogens that cause Mad Cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. They occur when a normal prion protein becomes deformed and clumped. The naturally occurring prion protein is harmless and can be found in most organisms. In humans, it is found in our brain cell membrane. By contrast, the abnormally deformed prion […]

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Physicians call for change in cancer tissue handling

Genetic sequencing technology is altering the way cancer is diagnosed and treated, but traditional specimen handling methods threaten to slow that progress. That’s the message delivered this week in a column appearing in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) by Scripps Clinic physicians Eric Topol, Kelly Bethel and Laura Goetz. Dr. Topol is […]

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Surgery has a more profound effect than anesthesia on brain pathology and cognition in Alzheimer’s animal model

A syndrome called “post-operative cognitive decline” has been coined to refer to the commonly reported loss of cognitive abilities, usually in older adults, in the days to weeks after surgery. In fact, some patients time the onset of their Alzheimer’s disease symptoms from a surgical procedure. Exactly how the trio of anesthesia, surgery, and dementia […]

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Study finds ‘mad cow disease’ in cattle can spread widely in ANS before detectable in CNS

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Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or “mad cow disease”) is a fatal disease in cattle that causes portions of the brain to turn sponge-like. This transmissible disease is caused by the propagation of a misfolded form of protein known as a prion, rather than by a bacterium or virus. The average time from infection to signs […]

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Schmallenberg virus in calf born at term with porencephaly

From the end of August through the end of October 2011, a clinical syndrome involving adult cattle and the fetuses of pregnant cows emerged in the border area between the Netherlands and North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The syndrome was characterized by nonspecific clinical signs (fever, decreased milk production), severe diarrhea, and some abortions. A metagenomic analysis […]

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How cells limit inflammation in lung injury

Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine have found in an animal model of acute lung injury a molecular mechanism that allows cells of the immune system to reduce tissue damage from inflammation. Inflammation is part of the normal response to infection. One aspect of inflammation is the production of negatively […]

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A new target to inhibit malaria and toxoplasmosis infection

Maryse Lebrun, Research Director at Inserm, and her fellow researchers at the Laboratoire Dynamique des Interactions Membranaires Normales et Pathologiques (Laboratory of Dynamics of Membrane Interactions in Normal and Pathological Cells — CNRS/ Montpellier Universities 1 and 2) in France, have characterised a protein complex that allows the agents that cause malaria and toxoplasmosis to […]

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Leaking blood vessels may be cause of infection-spreading condition

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Researchers at St. Michael’s Hospital have put forward a new theory as to what causes sepsis, an often fatal condition that occurs when infection spreads throughout the body. Leaking blood vessels may actually be a cause of sepsis, rather than a symptom as previously thought, said Dr. Warren Lee. Dr. Lee’s hypothesis and a review […]

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New study upends thinking about how liver disease develops

In the latest of a series of related papers, researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, with colleagues in Austria and elsewhere, present a new and more definitive explanation of how fibrotic cells form, multiply and eventually destroy the human liver, resulting in cirrhosis. In doing so, the findings upend the […]

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How key drug kills worms in tropical diseases

In a major breakthrough that comes after decades of research and nearly half a billion treatments in humans, scientists have finally unlocked how a key anti-parasitic drug kills the worms brought on by the filarial diseases river blindness and elephantitis. Onderstanding how the drug ivermectin works has the potential to lead to new treatments for […]

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Real-world proof of hand washing’s effectiveness

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Scientists are reporting dramatic new real-world evidence supporting the idea that hand washing can prevent the spread of water-borne disease. It appears in a new study showing a connection between fecal bacteria contamination on hands, fecal contamination of stored drinking water, and health in households in a developing country in Africa. The study is in […]

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Utility of immunohistochemical markers in differentiating benign from malignant follicular-derived thyroid nodules

Thyroid nodules are common among adults though only a small percentage is malignant, which can histologically mimic benign nodules. Accurate diagnosis of these thyroid nodules is critical for the proper clinical management. We investigated immunoexpression in 98 surgically removed benign thyroid nodules including 52 hyperplastic nodules (HN) and 46 follicular/ Hurthle cell adenomas (FA), and […]

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Nuclear magnetic resonance technology could reduce time spent under the knife

Chemical fingerprints of tissue samples taken during operations could soon help surgeons to decide where to make their incisions. Two groups — one based in the United Kingdom, the other in France — are leading efforts to use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to analyse the metabolites in biopsies. The analyses should reveal whether cells […]

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West Nile virus infection may persist in kidneys years after initial infection

A new study shows that people who have been infected with West Nile virus may have persistent virus in their kidneys for years after initial infection, potentially leading to kidney problems. The research appeared in the January 1 issue of The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Spread by infected mosquitoes, West Nile virus was first detected […]

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How diarrheal bacteria cause some colon cancers revealed in mouse studies

Johns Hopkins scientists say they have figured out how bacteria that cause diarrhea may also be the culprit in some colon cancers. The investigators say that strains of the common Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) dupe immune system cells into permitting runaway colon tissue inflammation, a precursor for malignant growth. This could be the H. pylori of […]

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Drug shows cancer stem cells not invulnerable

A promising new cancer drug targets and kills the pernicious tumour cells responsible for metastasis and relapse. It is far too early to test the drug, called salinomycin, in humans, but the findings offer hope that the so-called cancer stem cells will eventually prove vulnerable to treatment. “It’s been thought that these cells are responsible […]

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Gaining a better understanding of kidney diseases

By introducing a genetic switch in mice it is possible to increase or decrease the production of specific protein molecules in their kidneys. Thus, researchers can study the influence of specific proteins on disease development. Scientists of the German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ), Heidelberg University Hospitals and other research institutes have published this […]

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Biphasic onset of splenic apoptosis following hemorrhagic shock: critical implications for Bax, Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 proteins

The innate immune response to trauma-hemorrhage involves inflammatory mediators, thus promoting cellular dysfunction as well as cell death in diverse tissues. These effects ultimately bear the risk of post-traumatic complications, such as organ dysfunction, multiple organ failure or adult respiratory distress syndrome. In this study, a murine model of resuscitated hemorrhagic shock (HS) was used […]

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Apoptosis and pathogenesis of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in humans

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The pathogenesis of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in humans has not been clearly elucidated. Apoptosis may also play an important role. We studied autopsy specimens from 2 patients who died of infection with this virus. Apoptosis was observed in alveolar epithelial cells, which is the major target cell type for the viral replication. Numerous […]

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New evidence questions the simple link between prion proteins and vCJD

While newly published research confirms that under laboratory circumstances prion-protein can be absorbed across the gut, it also shows that this is unlikely to occur in real life. In addition, the results show that the places in the gut that do take up these disease-associated proteins are different from the locations where infectivity is known […]

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Liver C-reactive protein production linked to atherosclerosis

New research shows that levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), produced by the liver and not at the lesion site, correlate with the degree of atherosclerosis. The paper by Sun et al., “C-reactive protein in atherosclerotic lesions: its origin and pathophysiological significance,” appears in the October issue of The American Journal of Pathology and is accompanied […]

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