Pathogenesis of avian Bornavirus in experimentally infected cockatiels

Avian bornavirus (ABV) is the presumed causative agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a major fatal disease in psittacines. However, the influencing factors and pathogenesis of PDD are not known and natural ABV infection exhibits remarkable variability. We investigated the course of infection in 18 cockatiels that were intracerebrally and intravenously inoculated with ABV. A persistent ABV infection developed in all 18 cockatiels, but, as in natural infection, clinical disease patterns varied. Over 33 weeks, we simultaneously studied seroconversion, presence of viral RNA and antigens, infectious virus, histopathologic alterations, and clinical signs of infection in the ABV-infected birds. Our study results further confirm the etiologic role of ABV in the development of PDD, and they provide basis for further investigations of the pathogenetic mechanisms and disease-inducing factors for the development of PDD. Proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) is a significant cause of disease-related fatalities among birds, primarily psittacines. PDD has been observed in >50 psittacine species. Large parrots, including many endangered species, are the most frequently and most severely affected birds. PDD constitutes a threat to all parrot flocks and aviaries worldwide and endangers the protection and conservation of captive and wild psittacine species.

PPD is caused by a nonpurulent inflammation of the autonomic nervous system of the upper gastrointestinal tract, the peripheral and central nervous tissue, and the cardiac conduction system. Gastrointestinal and neurologic signs can appear alone or in combination. The clinical signs are nonspecific, and PDD can be definitively diagnosed only by pathohistologic detection of lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates of ganglia in the upper gastrointestinal tract. However, a negative finding cannot exclude the presence of PDD. The experimental infection of cockatiels in this study provides reliable evidence that ABV can induce a persistent infection by various routes and lead to disease patterns similar to those in natural infection. Moreover, the etiologic role of ABV for the development of PDD was further confirmed in an adequately sized cohort of cockatiels. Our detailed investigation of clinical signs, seroconversion, histopathologic lesions, and various viral parameters allowed us to document essential data on the course and clinical outcome of ABV infections and on the similarities and differences between ABV and BDV infections. This will serve as a basis for further investigations on the underlying pathogenesis and the main contributing virus and host factors in ABV infection. It remains to be determined whether immunopathologic mechanisms that are based on a T cell–mediated immune reaction, as known for BDV infection, play a role in ABV infection and the development of PDD. Findings in the present study add to our understanding of the pathogenesis of ABV infection and will facilitate interpretation of clinical findings. Antibodies to ABV do not indicate immunity; instead, they point toward a resolved or ongoing ABV infection and a possible risk for the development of PDD. Mrs Piepenbring is a veterinarian at the Clinic for Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians and Fish, Justus-Liebig University, Giessen, Germany, where she is also a member of the PDD/ABV Working Group Her research interests are avian and reptile medicine and avian virology.

Emerging Infectious Diseases
February 21, 2012

Original web page at Emerging Infectious Diseases