Tag Archives: Oncology

Single-dose, needle-free ebola vaccine provides long-term protection in macaques

Maria A. Croyle and colleagues note that in the current Ebola outbreak, which is expected to involve thousands more infections and deaths before it’s over, an effective vaccine could help turn the tide. Even better, taking the needle out of the inoculation process could also help prevent the accidental transmission of Ebola, as well as […]

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Personalized cocktails vanquish resistant cancers

Lung cancer cells are cultured and challenged with an array of drugs in a proposed strategy to overcome treatment resistance. Doctors may be able to overcome drug resistance in cancer by growing cells from a patient’s own tumour and then blasting the cells with an array of compounds to see which ones work. A study […]

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* Researchers treat canine cancer, likely to advance human health

A research team at MississippiState’s College of Veterinary   Medicine is working to better understand cancer in dogs, and the work also could advance knowledge of human cancer. Their investigation began with only a tiny blood platelet, but quickly they discovered opportunities for growth and expanding the breadth of the research. “We have a lot […]

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* Personalized cellular therapy achieves remission in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients

Ninety percent of children and adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who had relapsed multiple times or failed to respond to standard therapies went into remission after receiving an investigational personalized cellular therapy, CTL019, developed at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. The results are published this week in The New […]

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* Lung cancer can stay hidden for over 20 years

UK scientists have discovered that lung cancers can lie dormant for over 20 years before suddenly turning into an aggressive form of the disease, according to a study published in Science. The team studied lung cancers from seven patients — including smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. They found that after the first genetic mistakes that […]

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Studies examine vaccination strategies for prevention, control of avian flu

Two randomized trials in the October 8 issue of JAMA examine new vaccination strategies for the prevention and control of avian influenza, often referred to as “bird flu.” This is a theme issue on infectious disease. In one study, Mark J. Mulligan, M.D., of the Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, and colleagues compared the […]

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Pollution linked to lethal sea turtle tumors

Pollution in urban and farm runoff in Hawaii is causing tumors in endangered sea turtles, a new study finds. The study, published Tuesday in the peer-reviewed open-access journal PeerJ, shows that nitrogen in the runoff ends up in algae that the turtles eat, promoting the formation of tumors on the animals’ eyes, flippers and internal […]

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New trick for ‘old’ drug brings hope for pancreatic cancer patients

Cancer Research UK scientists have found a new use for an old drug by showing that it shrinks a particular type of pancreatic cancer tumour and stops it spreading, according to research published in Gut. The scientists, at the Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute and the University of Glasgow, treated mice with pancreatic cancers caused […]

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Scientists identify gene that fights metastasis of a common lung cancer

Scientists at the Salk Institute have identified a gene responsible for stopping the movement of cancer from the lungs to other parts of the body, indicating a new way to fight one of the world’s deadliest cancers. By identifying the cause of this metastasis — which often happens quickly in lung cancer and results in […]

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Reprogrammed cells slow to grow tumours in monkeys

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A major concern over using stem cells is the risk of tumours: but now a new study shows that It takes a lot of effort to get induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to grow into tumours after they have been transplanted into a monkey. The findings will bolster the prospects of one day using such […]

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* Source of most cases of invasive bladder cancer identified

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A single type of cell in the lining of the bladder is responsible for most cases of invasive bladder cancer, according to researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine. Their study, conducted in mice, is the first to pinpoint the normal cell type that can give rise to invasive bladder cancers. It’s also the […]

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Potential therapeutic target for deadly brain cancer

Dartmouth researchers previously demonstrated that STK17A is a protein that is induced when DNA is damaged by the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. Biopsied samples of glioblastoma tumors contain high level of STK17A. And the more STK17A a tumor has the poorer the outcome appears to be. Increased levels of STK17A are correlated with shorter survival time […]

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Indian rhinoceroses: Reproductive tract tumours reduce female fertility in early stages

Reproduction of the Indian rhinoceros faces greater difficulties than was previously recognised. Researchers from the German Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research Berlin (IZW) together with American colleagues discovered that benign vaginal and cervical tumours cause infertility even in young females. This substantially affects breeding success in zoological gardens. At the age of three […]

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New approach makes cancer cells explode

Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have discovered that a substance called Vacquinol-1 makes cells from glioblastoma, the most aggressive type of brain tumour, literally explode. When mice were given the substance, which can be given in tablet form, tumour growth was reversed and survival was prolonged. The findings are published in the journal Cell. […]

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UV light accelerates cancer cells that creep along outside of blood vessels

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Based on the pioneering work of Dr. Claire Lugassy and Dr. Raymond Barnhill at UCLA’s  Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, a new study provides additional support for a process by which melanoma cells, a deadly form of skin cancer, can spread throughout the body by creeping like tiny spiders along the outside of blood vessels without […]

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Antioxidants speed cancer in mice

Antioxidants like Vitamin E may not protect against cancer. A study in mice has found that two commonly used antioxidants — vitamin E and a compound called N-acetylcysteine (NAC) — speed the growth of lung cancer rather than curb it. The results, published in Science Translational Medicine, may be contrary to the expectations of the […]

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How a contagious dog tumour went global

Sexually transmitted canine cancer has acquired almost 2 million mutations and is still going strong. Canine tumours that spread by contagion are genetically almost identical from dog to dog, gene sequencing has shown. The genome sequence of a contagious cancer suggests that it emerged in an ancient breed of dog some 11,000 years ago and […]

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Researchers uncover why combination drug treatment ineffective in cancer clinical trials

Medical researchers at the University of Alberta have discovered that combination drug therapy didn’t work well in clinical trials for cancer patients because one drug was making the other drug ineffective. Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry researcher Michael Sawyer and his colleagues, including first author Vijaya Damaraju, recently published their findings in the peer-reviewed journal, […]

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Innovative vaccine trains immune system to fight melanoma

Loyola University Medical Center is enrolling melanoma patients in the first clinical trial in the Midwest of an experimental vaccine that trains a patient’s immune system to fight the deadly cancer. A batch of the immune system’s killer T cells are removed from the patient and genetically modified in a Loyola lab. Two genes are […]

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Chilly lab mice skew cancer studies

Laboratory mice might have lowered immune responses — but might also be more active — than they would if they were housed at a comfortably warm temperature. Standard temperatures for housing laboratory mice affect the experimental results that often form the foundation for cancer-drug development. International guidelines call for laboratory mice to be kept at […]

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Study identifies mechanism that makes ordinary stem cells create tumors

A new study from the Ostrow School of Dentistry of USC published in Cell Stem Cell illustrates how changes in cell signaling can cause ordinary stem cells in the jaw to start forming benign but potentially harmful tumors. Principal investigator Songtao Shi, professor at the Ostrow School’s Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, said ossifying fibromas, […]

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Novel mutations define two types of bone tumor

Scientists have made a rare discovery that allows them to attribute two types of tumour almost entirely to specific mutations that lie in two related genes. These mutations are found in nearly 100 per cent of patients suffering from two rare bone tumours; chondroblastoma and giant cell tumour of the bone. Chondroblastoma and giant cell […]

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Human brain tumor cells erased in mice

Working with mice, Johns Hopkins researchers have discovered that weeks of treatment with a repurposed FDA-approved drug halted the growth of — and ultimately left no detectable trace of — brain tumor cells taken from adult human patients. The scientists targeted a mutation in the IDH1 gene first identified in human brain tumors called gliomas […]

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Breast cancer cells are primed to thrive

Some breast cancer cells have a leg up on survival—the genes they express make them more likely to spread and prosper in bone tissue. Tumors spread—or metastasize—when cells from a primary tumor break off and invade another organ. In earlier work, HHMI researchers studying the genetics of breast cancer cells, found they could predict which […]

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How DNA repair helps prevent cancer

The biological information that makes us unique is encoded in our DNA. DNA damage is a natural biological occurrence that happens every time cells divide and multiply. External factors such as overexposure to sunlight can also damage DNA. Understanding how the human body recognizes damaged DNA and initiates repair fascinates Michael Feig, professor of biochemistry […]

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Cancer’s origins revealed: Genetic imprints and signatures left by DNA-damaging processes that lead to cancer identified

Researchers have provided the first comprehensive compendium of mutational processes that drive tumour development. Together, these mutational processes explain most mutations found in 30 of the most common cancer types. This new understanding of cancer development could help to treat and prevent a wide-range of cancers. Each mutational process leaves a particular pattern of mutations, […]

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Cross-country collaboration leads to new leukemia model

Eight years ago, two former Stanford University postdoctoral fellows, one of them still in California and the other at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI) in Cambridge, began exchanging theories about why patients with leukemia stop producing healthy blood cells. What was it, they asked, that caused bone marrow to stop producing normal blood-producing cells? […]

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Why tumors become drug-resistant

Cancer drugs known as ErbB inhibitors have shown great success in treating many patients with lung, breast, colon and other types of cancer. However, ErbB drug resistance means that many other patients do not respond, and even among those who do, tumors commonly come back. A new study from MIT reveals that much of this […]

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Potential new target to treat malignant pleural mesothelioma

Malignant mesothelioma is a rare asbestos-associated malignancy with limited therapeutic options. Despite advances in the treatment, the median survival remains 12 months from the time of diagnosis. Increased understanding of the molecular basis for the diverse signaling pathways involved in cancer progression should promote the discovery of novel biomarkers for early diagnosis and potentially lead […]

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Novel gene target shows promise for bladder cancer detection and treatment

Scientists from Virginia Commonwealth University Massey Cancer Center have provided evidence from preclinical experiments that a gene known as melanoma differentiation associated gene-9/syntenin (mda-9/syntenin) could be used as a therapeutic target to kill bladder cancer cells, help prevent metastasis and even be used to non-invasively diagnose the disease and monitor its progression. The study, published […]

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